FlexiForFuture (ADAPNER)

  • looptijd: 2015 - 2017
  • locatie: Groningen,
  • functie: Data

FlexiForFuture is een studie naar samenhang behoeften, kosten en realisatie van flexibiliteit (balans centraal-decentraal).

FlexiForFuture- hybrid energy systems

Het betreft hier een TKI subsidieproject uitgegeven door RVO.

Samenwerkende partners in dit project zijn University of Groningen Engineering and TechnologyUniversity of Groningen Faculty Mathematics and Natural SciencesEnexis, Entrance Hanzehogeschool GroningenGasunieRooftop Energy B.V.


Betrokken wetenschappers

Robbert-Jan H. van der Burg, Universiteit Groningen
E. r.j.van.der.burg@rug.nl


Switch2SmartGrids, TESG114008
The use of demand management as flexibility form
 Managing demand in order to balance the system is a common way of thinking in the energy domain. Currently, one of the most often used practices to achieve this is day and night power:
  • a price difference between day and night for a kWh of energy.
  • A new demand management technique currently under development in the energy domain is the ‘smart grid technology
This technology allows end-users of energy to automatically respond to changes in prices of energy in order to balance the supply and demand of energy instantaneously.
At times when demand for energy is low and supply of energy high, prices will drop. This will stimulate consumers to make use of these
 price advantages by using ‘smart’ appliances or charging electrical vehicles for example.
However, using demand management as a main form of flexibility is not common practice in supply chain management. In supply chain management literature, the common way of thinking is to try to deliver what is demanded, but not by focussing on the manipulation of demand.
It is not a common way of working when one geographical area has a surplus of goods and another area has a shortage of those goods, to decrease prices in the area of a surplus and increase prices in the area with a shortage of goods in order to balance the supply chain.
Hence, it can be concluded that using demand management as a provider of supply chain flexibility is not as common and wide spread as demand management is in the energy system. Therefore, general supply chain management theory and practice may learn from the energy system about how to imbed demand management.
The main question addressed in this paper is if we could find correspondence between energy system flexibility and general supply chain flexibility that allows adopting academic supply chain flexibility literature in the energy domain. The paper concerns the finding of two forms of flexibility that can be found in both general supply chains and energy systems; storage and demand management. Storage of goods is there with a common practice in regular supply chains, however, not a common way of working in energy systems. On the other hand,demand management is common way of embedding flexibility in energy supply chains, but this is not the case in regular supply chains. Due to the correspondence found, evidence is provided that comparison and analysis can be interesting for both domains.Some learnings already are:
  1. that operating a storage facility (in optimal circumstances)in a market environment in order to balance demand and supply will not be profitable/ viable and therefore not effective. When performance improves, the viability of this approach will decrease.
  2. Managing demand and supply geographically can also being done by adjusting prices. It is a practice often applied in the energy system and way of thinking which is common for economist, but not for operations management.

The effects, however, depend on the price elasticity of the good under considering.

Hence, the final conclusion is that studying supply chain literature is helpful in order to understand energy system flexibility. It is very valuable to make use of the relevant knowledge of flexibility described in supply chain literature for the development of a theoretical base of energy system flexibility and in the end, the development of flexibility services.

Therefore, this existing knowledge can accelerate these developments significantly and provide solutions for the balancing problems of hybrid energy system with increasing penetrations of sustainable intermittent energy sources.

University of Groningen Engineering and Technology

  prof. Jacquelien Scherpen   www.rug.nl    j.m.a.scherpen@rug.nl    +31 50 638791/8493